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Month: July 2013

A timeline projecting future Berkeley Pit management.

Will the Treatment Plant be able to meet the demand to pump-and-treat Pit water in the future?

A treatment pond at the Horseshoe Bend Water Treatment Plant (2009). Photo by Justin Ringsak.
A treatment pond at the Horseshoe Bend Water Treatment Plant (2009).

Yes, after a treatment technology review and upgrades to the plant are completed.

The 1994 EPA Record of Decision and 2002 Consent Decree require a review of treatment technologies when the Critical Water Level (5,410 feet) is about four years away. The review will consider the plant’s ability to treat both Pit water and water coming from the Horseshoe Bend drainage to the north. Based on the review, the Treatment Plant will then be upgraded to best treat the water.

Upgrades must be completed two years before the critical level is reached. Projections show water levels at one of the compliance points connected to the Pit will near the critical level around 2023, so a treatment review would take place in 2019, with any needed upgrades completed by 2021, as indicated by the timeline below.

This timeline reflects project changes agreed to in the Consent Decree that governs Berkeley Pit management. The timeline is reviewed and adjusted by the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology each year. Any future timeline changes will be reported in PitWatch and on the PitWatch website at www.pitwatch.org. Graphic by Justin Ringsak.
This timeline reflects project changes agreed to in the Consent Decree that governs Berkeley Pit management. The timeline is reviewed and adjusted by the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology each year. Any future timeline changes will be reported in PitWatch and on the PitWatch website at www.pitwatch.org. Click on the image to view a larger version.

 

Water in the Berkeley Pit rising over time, 1979-2013. Photos from the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology, Justin Ringsak, and Fritz Daily.

1982-2013: 31 years since pumps stopped

Over 31 years ago economic factors led the Atlantic-Richfield Corporation, or ARCO, now a subsidiary of British Petroleum, to cease mining operations at the Berkeley Pit in Butte, Montana. Underground mining had come to an end seven years earlier, but the underground pumps had continued to operate, pumping groundwater out from the mines and the Berkeley Pit.

The 1982 suspension of mining coincided with the stoppage of pumping, allowing groundwater to begin rising in the underground mines and eventually into the Berkeley Pit.

Water in the Berkeley Pit rising, 1979-2013. Photos from the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology, Justin Ringsak, and Fritz Daily.
Water in the Berkeley Pit rising, 1979-2013.

With ARCO’s suspension of mining in the neighboring East Berkeley Pit (now known as the Continental Pit) on July 1, 1983, the future of mining on the Butte Hill was uncertain at best.

EPA LogoSoon after, the Berkeley Pit was classified as a federal Superfund site by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA, a Superfund site is an uncontrolled or abandoned place where hazardous waste is located, possibly affecting local ecosystems or people.

The end of mining at the Berkeley also marked the beginning of the Berkeley Pit lake we see today. 3,900 feet deep underground in the Kelley Mine , the pumps used to dewater the underground mines and the Berkeley Pit ran until April 23, 1982. Without pumping, the Berkeley Pit began to fill with water flowing in from both surface runoff and groundwater. Due to the natural geochemistry of the area and mining activities, the water is highly acidic and contains high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals.

This image from the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology illustrates the connections between historic underground mining tunnels and the Berkeley Pit. After groundwater pumping ceased in 1982, the tunnels, and eventually the Pit, began to fill with water.
This image from the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology illustrates the connections between historic underground mining tunnels and the Berkeley Pit. After groundwater pumping ceased in 1982, the tunnels, and eventually the Pit, began to fill with water.

By 1985, ARCO had sold a portion of its holdings to Montana businessman Dennis Washington. Mining operations in the Continental Pit, as well as heap leaching of old Berkeley Pit leach pads, were resumed by his new company, Montana Resources.

The future site of the Berkeley Pit in Butte, Montana as it appeared in 1952.

1955-1982: Berkeley Pit history

The Berkeley Pit in 1963, shortly after the construction of the Weed Concentrator seen below the Pit, with the city of Butte, Montana to the bottom and right in the photo.
The Berkeley Pit in 1963, shortly after the construction of the Weed Concentrator seen below the Pit, with the city of Butte, Montana to the bottom and right in the photo.

Over the active lifespan of the Berkeley, approximately 320 million tons of ore and over 700 million tons of waste rock were mined from the Pit. Put another way, “The Richest Hill on Earth” produced enough copper to pave a four-lane highway four inches thick from Butte to Salt Lake City and 30 miles beyond.

The historic Berkeley mine in Butte, Montana, where the Berkeley Pit started in 1955. Photo from the Butte-Silver Bow Archives.
The historic Berkeley mine in Butte, Montana, where the Berkeley Pit started in 1955.

In 1955, mining in Butte saw the light, literally. Excavation on what would become the Berkeley Pit, named from one of several nearby historic underground mines that the Pit would later engulf, began that year in a transition from underground to open pit mining.

A street in Meaderville, one of the Butte neighborhoods destroyed to make way for Berkeley Pit expansion between 1955 and 1982. Photo from the Butte-Silver Bow Archives.
A street in Meaderville, one of the Butte neighborhoods destroyed to make way for Berkeley Pit expansion between 1955 and 1982.

The Pit would, in the next decade, swallow Butte neighborhoods like Meaderville, Dublin Gulch, and McQueen. The transition to open pit mining, a highly industrialized form of mining, also meant fewer jobs for the city’s miners. But mining had always been the lifeblood of Butte, and so the community embraced the new mine, and there was little objection to the sacrifice of some of the city’s neighborhoods.

The Anaconda Company’s decision to begin open pit mining in Butte was not without its reasons. In 1955, copper prices were the highest they had been since the end of World War I in 1918. And the following year, 1956, would mark the highest copper price seen until 2006 (with the exception of the lone year 1974, when copper briefly spiked due to an end to price controls and the ongoing demands of the Vietnam War).

The Holy Savior church, along with several historic neighborhoods in Butte, Montana, was buried to make way for Berkeley Pit expansion. Photo from the Butte-Silver Bow Archives.
The Holy Savior church, along with several historic neighborhoods in Butte, Montana, was buried to make way for Berkeley Pit expansion.

Those high prices gave the Company a big incentive to rethink its Butte operations. The most accessible parts of the Butte hill had already been mined out. Legend has it that Marcus Daly’s original ore vein was 30% copper. That is extraordinarily rich ore, and the veins of that quality could not last- as a point of comparison, when it opened, the ore mined at the Berkeley was about 0.75% copper, and the ore being mined at Montana Resources nearby Continental Pit operation today is approximately 0.25% copper. In order to economically extract copper from lower grade ore, the Pit was born.
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Berkeley Pit awards for student science (2013)

Since 1997, the Berkeley Pit Public Education Committee has given awards at annual Montana Tech Science & Engineering Fairs to students with projects that explore topics related to the Berkeley Pit.

At the 2013 fair, five students received awards for Pit-related projects. Brian McGeehan from Butte Central received an award for his project, How Can We Clean Up the Berkeley Pit Water? Jacob Wheeling of Townsend was recognized for his project, To Drink or Not to Drink. Jordan Russell from Whittier Elementary in Butte was given an award for asking Could We Use Berkeley Pit Water to Irrigate Our Lawns? and Kellen Lean from Hillcrest Elementary in Butte was recognized for Contents of H2O.

At the high school level, Chelsea Anderson from Big Sky High School in Missoula earned the Berkeley award with her project, The Feasibility of Purifying Water in Ethiopia Using Low Cost and Easily Accessible Materials.

Many past winners have gone on to pursue careers in science and technology.

Berkeley Pit water quality has shown changes over time. It is regularly monitored by the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology. The reddish color typically observed is due to high concentrations of iron solids. Photo by Justin Ringsak, 2009.

What’s in the Berkeley Pit water?

The water level at the Berkeley Pit has been recorded every month for more than 23 years. In addition to that monitoring, scientists at the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology have been sampling and analyzing water from the Berkeley Pit twice a year for its chemical composition and physical properties.

Berkeley Pit Facts 2013. Graphic by Justin Ringsak.

In the Berkeley Pit, samples are taken from anywhere between three to nine different depths and analyzed for various dissolved chemicals.

Berkeley Pit water quality has shown changes over time. It is regularly monitored by the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology. The reddish color typically observed is due to high concentrations of iron solids. Photo by Justin Ringsak, 2009.
Berkeley Pit water quality has shown changes over time. It is regularly monitored by the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology. The reddish color typically observed is due to high concentrations of iron solids.

Water quality conditions, such as temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen, are also measured at five- to ten-foot intervals from the surface to a depth of 600 feet. These same conditions are also measured at a depth near the Pit bottom.

In past years, the Berkeley Pit was a chemically layered system, which means that the chemistry of the water changed with depth. The brownish-red water at the surface was actually the least contaminated water in the pit, and the lower layer the worst water quality. The color changed as well, going from brownish-red on top to bluish-green at the bottom.

At a certain depth, the chemistry of the water changed so rapidly that it formed a chemical boundary scientists refer to as a chemocline. Water above the chemocline was chemically lighter, in other words, less dense, than the water below. The layering of the two waters is similar to oil floating on water. The water above the line was also less acidic (higher pH), with lower concentrations of metals.

A chemocline, or a difference in water chemistry depending on water depth, was seen in the Berkeley Pit prior to about 2011. Since that time, mixing of the water in the Pit lake has  caused the water chemistry to become more uniform. Graphic by Justin Ringsak.
A chemocline, or a difference in water chemistry depending on water depth, was seen in the Berkeley Pit prior to about 2012. Mixing of the water in the Pit lake over time has caused the water chemistry to become more uniform. Click on the image to view a larger version.

Due to mixing in the Berkeley Pit lake over time, this previously layered system disappeared around 2012, and the Pit water has since become more uniform.