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Research & Science

Life & The Berkeley Pit

  • Algal stimulation of the Berkeley Pit lake system: Journal of Phycology, v. 38(s1), p. 1-2. Bartkowiak, B., and Mitman, G.G., 2002.
  • Final report: biological survey of the Berkeley Pit lake system: Mine Waste Technology Program Activity IV, Project 10, U.S. EPA National Risk Management Lab, IAG #DW89938513-01-0, 67 p. Mitman, G.G., 1999.
  • An investigation of sulfate reducing bacteria activity in the Berkeley Pit lake system:  M.S. thesis, Montana Tech, Butte, MT, USA, 70 p. Philip, M., 1999.
  • Hordes of geese die on a toxic lake in Montana: New York Times, Dec. 12, 2016. Robbins, J., 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/12/science/snow-geese-deaths-montana.html
  • Chemical, physical and biological interaction at the Berkeley Pit, Butte, Montana: Proceedings of Tailings and Mine Waste ’97, Balkema Press, Rotterdam, p. 521-541. Robins, R.G., and 10 coauthors, 1997.
  • Bioprospecting in the Berkeley Pit: bio active metabolites from acid mine waste extremophiles: Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, v. 32, p. 1123-1175. Stierle, A.A., and Stierle, D.B., 2005.
  • Berkelic acid, a novel spiroketal with selective anticancer activity from an acid mine waste fungal extremophile: Journal of Organic Chemistry, v.71, p. 5357-5360. Stierle, A.A., Stierle, D.B., and Kelly, K., 2006.
  • Bioprospecting in the Berkeley Pit: the use of signal transduction enzyme inhibition assays to isolate bioactive secondary metabolites from the extremophilic fungi of an acid mine waste lake: Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, v. 39, p. 1-45. Stierle, A.A., and Stierle, D.B., 2013.
  • Algal bioremediation of the Berkeley Pit lake system, Butte, MT: An in situ experiment using limnocorrals: M.S. thesis, Montana Tech, Butte, MT, 124 p. Tucci, N.J., 2006.

Industrial Water Uses & The Berkeley Pit

  • Evaluation of the potential for beneficial use of contaminated water from a flooded mine shaft in Butte, Montana:  Mine Water and The Environment, v. 28, p. 264-273. Petritz, K.M., Gammons, C.H., and Nordwick, S., 2009

Geochemistry of the Berkeley Pit

  • Distribution of organic carbon in the Berkeley Pit lake, Montana : Mine Water and the Environment, v. 25, p. 93-99. Cameron, D., Willett, M., and Hammer, L., 2006.
  • The aqueous geochemistry of the Berkeley Pit, Butte, Montana, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 44, p. 23-36. Davis, A., and Ashenberg, D., 1989.
  • Long-term changes in the geochemistry and limnology of the Berkeley Pit-lake, Butte, Montana: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 25, p. 76-85.Gammons, C.H., and Duaime, T.E., 2006.
  • Geochemistry of rare earth elements and uranium in the acidic Berkeley Pit lake, Butte, Montana:  Chemical Geology, v. 198, p. 269-288. Gammons, C.H., Wood, S.A., Jonas, J.P., and Madison, J.P., 2003.
  • A survey of the geochemistry of flooded mine shaft water in the Butte District, Montana: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 25, p. 100-107. Gammons, C.H., Metesh, J.J., and Snyder, D.M., 2006a.
  • The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation, evaporated mine water, and river water in Montana, USA: Journal of Hydrology, v. 328, p. 319-330. Gammons C.H., Poulson S.R., Pellicori D.A., Roesler A., Reed P.J., and Petrescu E.M., 2006b.
  • Geochemistry and stable isotopes of the flooded underground mine workings of Butte, Montana: Economic Geology, v. 104, p. 1213-1234. Gammons C.H., Snyder D.M., Poulson S.R., and Petritz, K., 2009.
  • Current seasonal limnology of the Berkeley Pit Lake: Proc. 5th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, p. 359-366. Jonas, J.P., 2000.
  • Oxidation of pyrite by ferric iron in the acidic Berkeley Pit lake, Montana, USA:  Proc. 6th International Conf. on Acid Rock Drainage, p. 1073-1078. Madison, J.P., Gammons, C.H., Poulson, S.R. and Jonas, J.P., 2003.
  • Mass balance modeling of dissolved copper loading to the Berkeley Pit, Montana, USA, and estimates of Pit wall leaching: Proc, 11th Water-Rock Interaction Symposium, Saratoga Springs, NY, Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, London, Vol. 2, p. 1569-1573. Maest, A.S., Metesh, J.J., Duaime, T.E., 2004.
  • Geochemical evolution of flooding mine waters in a zoned, sulfide-hosted ore deposit:  Summit Valley Mining district, Butte, Montana: Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 157 p. Metesh, J.J., 2004.
  • Using a water balance to determine the source of water in the flooding underground mine workings of Butte:  Mine Water and the Environment, v. 25, p. 108-113. Metesh, J.J., 2006.
  • Experimental investigation of water-rock interaction and acid mine drainage at Butte, Montana: Environmental Geology, v. 41, p. 705-719. Newbrough, P. and Gammons, C.H., 2002.
  • Geochemistry and stable isotope composition of the Berkeley pit lake and surrounding mine waters, Butte, Montana: Applied Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 2116-2137. Pellicori, D.A., Gammons, C.H., and Poulson, S.R., 2005.

Water Quality, Monitoring, and Sampling of the Berkeley Pit

  • Butte, Montana: The Berkeley Pit, changes in water quality and water sampling methods, 1982-2017: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Bulletin 138, 64 p. Duaime, T.E., and McGrath, S.F., 2019.
  • The flooding of Butte’s underground mines and Berkeley Pit: 15 Years of water-level monitoring (1982–1997): MBMG Open-File Report 376. Duaime, T.E., Metesh, J.J., Kerschen, M.D., and Dunstan, C.B., 1998.
  • The flooding of Butte’s underground mines and the Berkeley Pit, 1982-1999: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 409. Duaime, T.E., 2000.
  • The flooding of Butte’s underground mines and Berkeley Pit, Butte Mine Flooding operable unit annual water-level update, 1998–1999: MBMG Open-File Report 410. Duaime, T.E., and Metesh, J.J., 2000.
  • The flooding of Butte’s underground mines and Berkeley Pit, Butte Mine Flooding operable unit annual water-level update, 1999–2000: MBMG Open-File Report 435. Duaime, T.E., 2001.
  • Twenty years of water-level and water-quality sampling Butte’s underground mines and Berkeley Pit, Butte, Montana 1982–2001: MBMG Open-File Report 473. Duaime, T.E., and Metesh, J.J., 2003.
  • Butte, Montana: Richest Hill on Earth, 100 years of underground mining: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Misc. Contribution, v. 19, 1 sheet, scale 1:9,000. Duaime, T. E., Kennelly, P. J., and Thale, P. R., 2004.
  • Update of water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling Butte’s underground mines and Berkeley Pit, Butte, Montana 1982–2002: MBMG Open-File Report 489. Duaime, T.E., and Metesh, J.J., 2004, 2002.
  • Update of water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling Butte’s underground mines and Berkeley Pit, Butte, Montana 1982–2003: MBMG Open-File Report 518. Duaime, T.E., and Metesh, J.J., 2005, 2003.
  • Consent Decree update water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling Butte’s underground mines and Berkeley Pit, Butte, Montana: MBMG Open-File Report 527. Duaime, T.E., and Metesh, J.J., 2005, 2004.
  • Consent Decree update water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling Butte’s underground mines and Berkeley Pit, Butte, Montana: MBMG Open-File Report 549. Duaime, T.E., and Metesh, J.J., 2007, 2005.
  • History of flooding of the Butte underground mines and Berkeley Pit, water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling, 2006 Consent Decree update, Butte, Montana, 1982–2006: MBMG Open-File Report 566. Duaime, T.E., and Tucci, N.J., 2008.
  • Butte underground mines and Berkeley Pit, water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling, 2007 Consent Decree update, Butte, Montana, 1982–2007: MBMG Open-File Report 577. Duaime, T.E., and Tucci, N.J., 2009.
  • Butte underground mines and Berkeley Pit, water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling, 2008 Consent Decree update, Butte, Montana, 1982–2008: MBMG Open-File Report 589. Duaime, T.E., and Tucci, N.J., 2009.
  • Butte underground mines and Berkeley Pit, water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling, 2009 Consent Decree update, Butte, Montana, 1982–2009: MBMG Open-File Report 599. Duaime, T.E., and Tucci, N.J., 2011a.
  • Butte underground mines and Berkeley Pit, water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling, 2010 Consent Decree update, Butte, Montana, 1982–2010: MBMG Open-File Report 609. Duaime, T.E., and Tucci, N.J., 2011b.
  • Butte underground mines and Berkeley Pit, water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling, 2012 Consent Decree update, Butte, Montana, 1982–2012: MBMG Open-File Report 641. Duaime, T.E., and Tucci, N.J., 2013.
  • Butte mine flooding operable unit water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling 2011 consent decree update, Butte, Montana, 1982-2011: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 671, 160 p. Duaime, T.E., and Tucci, N.J., 2016.
  • Butte underground mines and Berkeley Pit, water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling, 2014 Consent Decree update, Butte, Montana, 1982–2014: MBMG Open-File Report 661. Duaime, T.E., Lorenzo, M.B., and Tucci, N.J., 2016a.
  • Butte underground mines and Berkeley Pit, water-level monitoring and water-quality sampling, 2015 Consent Decree update, Butte, Montana, 1982–2015: MBMG Open-File Report 676. Duaime, T.E., Icopini, G. A., McGrath, S. F. and Thale, P. R., 2016b.
  • Influence of copper recovery on the water quality of the acidic Berkeley Pit lake, Montana, USA: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 49, p. 4081-4088. Tucci, N.J., and Gammons, C.H., 2015.
  • Deepwater sediment/pore water characterization of the metal-laden Berkeley Pit lake in Butte, Montana: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 25, p. 86-92. Twidwell L., Gammons, C.H., Young, C., and Berg, R., 2006.