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This map shows the locations of groundwater monitoring points for the alluvial aquifer in the East Camp area of the Butte Mine Flooding Operable Unit of the greater Butte Superfund site.

Maps of Berkeley Pit Monitoring Sites

Maps from the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology (MBMG) showing Berkeley Pit-related alluvial and bedrock monitoring sites have been added to PitWatch.Org. View snapshots of the maps below, click on an image to view a larger version, or use the links at the bottom of the page to download printable .pdf versions of the maps.

This map shows the locations of groundwater monitoring points for the alluvial aquifer in the East Camp area of the Butte Mine Flooding Operable Unit of the greater Butte Superfund site.
This map shows the locations of groundwater monitoring points for the alluvial aquifer in the East Camp area of the Butte Mine Flooding Operable Unit of the greater Butte Superfund site.

 

This map shows the locations of groundwater monitoring points for the bedrock aquifer in the East Camp area of the Butte Mine Flooding Operable Unit of the greater Butte Superfund site.
This map shows the locations of groundwater monitoring points for the bedrock aquifer in the East Camp area of the Butte Mine Flooding Operable Unit of the greater Butte Superfund site.

 

This map shows the locations of groundwater monitoring points for the West and Outer Camp areas of the Butte Mine Flooding Operable Unit of the greater Butte Superfund site.
This map shows the locations of groundwater monitoring points for the West and Outer Camp areas of the Butte Mine Flooding Operable Unit of the greater Butte Superfund site.

 

This map shows the locations of groundwater monitoring points for the Butte Mine Flooding Operable Unit of the greater Butte Superfund site.
This map shows the locations of all groundwater monitoring points for the Butte Mine Flooding Operable Unit of the greater Butte Superfund site.
Water in the Berkeley Pit rising over time, 1979-2013. Photos from the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology, Justin Ringsak, and Fritz Daily.

1982-2013: 31 years since pumps stopped

Over 31 years ago economic factors led the Atlantic-Richfield Corporation, or ARCO, now a subsidiary of British Petroleum, to cease mining operations at the Berkeley Pit in Butte, Montana. Underground mining had come to an end seven years earlier, but the underground pumps had continued to operate, pumping groundwater out from the mines and the Berkeley Pit.

The 1982 suspension of mining coincided with the stoppage of pumping, allowing groundwater to begin rising in the underground mines and eventually into the Berkeley Pit.

Water in the Berkeley Pit rising, 1979-2013. Photos from the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology, Justin Ringsak, and Fritz Daily.
Water in the Berkeley Pit rising, 1979-2013.

With ARCO’s suspension of mining in the neighboring East Berkeley Pit (now known as the Continental Pit) on July 1, 1983, the future of mining on the Butte Hill was uncertain at best.

EPA LogoSoon after, the Berkeley Pit was classified as a federal Superfund site by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA, a Superfund site is an uncontrolled or abandoned place where hazardous waste is located, possibly affecting local ecosystems or people.

The end of mining at the Berkeley also marked the beginning of the Berkeley Pit lake we see today. 3,900 feet deep underground in the Kelley Mine , the pumps used to dewater the underground mines and the Berkeley Pit ran until April 23, 1982. Without pumping, the Berkeley Pit began to fill with water flowing in from both surface runoff and groundwater. Due to the natural geochemistry of the area and mining activities, the water is highly acidic and contains high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals.

This image from the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology illustrates the connections between historic underground mining tunnels and the Berkeley Pit. After groundwater pumping ceased in 1982, the tunnels, and eventually the Pit, began to fill with water.
This image from the Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology illustrates the connections between historic underground mining tunnels and the Berkeley Pit. After groundwater pumping ceased in 1982, the tunnels, and eventually the Pit, began to fill with water.

By 1985, ARCO had sold a portion of its holdings to Montana businessman Dennis Washington. Mining operations in the Continental Pit, as well as heap leaching of old Berkeley Pit leach pads, were resumed by his new company, Montana Resources.

Butte, Montana, mine flooding west camp wells, shafts and area of 1960s flooding. The west camp groundwater system is monitored and maintained separately from the Berkeley Pit and connected east camp mines.

West Camp also part of mine flooding site

A timeline of the history of the West Camp portion of the greater Butte, Montana Superfund site, which is monitored and managed separately from the Berkeley Pit and connected East Camp mines.
A timeline of the history of the West Camp portion of the greater Butte, Montana Superfund site, which is monitored and managed separately from the Berkeley Pit and connected East Camp mines. Click on the image to view a larger version.

The anatomy of the thousands of miles of tunnels beneath the Butte Hill is daunting to consider and little understood by many. Important details, such as the distinction between the “West Camp” and “East Camp”, can cause consternation for many a curious observer.

The Berkeley Pit and surrounding underground mine workings and bedrock wells are referred to as the “East Camp”, and are separate from the “West Camp”, which is located more to the south and west. The Camps essentially refer to two water systems. In the East Camp, surface and underground water flows to the lowest point in the system, namely, the Berkeley Pit. The West Camp, whose waters never reach the Berkeley, is another story.

The West Camp lies southwest of the Berkeley Pit/East Camp drainage and includes the Travona, Emma, and Ophir mine workings. Just as in the East Camp, the groundwater in this area has been closely monitored since the suspension of pumping in 1982 to ensure that water levels do not rise high enough to significantly impact surrounding aquifers—in this case, 5,435 feet is the magic number.

Since November 1989, pumping operations have kept West Camp water below this level. In the late 1950s, the West Camp mine workings were sealed off from the rest of the shafts and drifts on the Butte Hill by a series of barriers, or bulkheads—some made of wood, some cement.

Three main cement bulkheads block the connections between the Emma in the West Camp and the Original mine in the East Camp at the 1,600-foot level, and between the Emma and Colorado mines at the 1,400- and 1,000-foot levels.

Anaconda Company crews originally installed the bulkheads for two main reasons: 1) there were no plans to continue mining in the West Camp, and 2) they wanted to increase the efficiency of continuing mining operations in the other underground mines of the East Camp and the Berkeley Pit.

The bulkheads allowed the company to eventually reduce the volume of both groundwater pumped out from underground shafts and the area underground that required fresh air to be pumped in. However, even after the bulkheads were installed, water was pumped out of the West Camp Emma shaft until 1965.

Does this Critical Water Level apply only to the Pit?

No. Pumping and treating of Pit water must begin when the 5,410-foot level is reached at ANY of the water-level monitoring compliance sites on the Hill, in what is called the East Camp. These sites include the Anselmo, Granite Mountain, Kelley, Belmont, and Steward mine shafts, as well as several other monitoring wells established to the south and the east of the Pit.

Presently, the water level at these sites is about 20-40 feet higher than the level in the Pit. So, the 5,410-foot level should be reached sooner at these sites than in the Pit, which means water pumping and treating would begin that much sooner.